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Using TrainingPeaks to Monitor Your Triathlon Training Progress

You picked out your “A” race. You have a training plan. You’re doing the work. How do you make sure you are progressing? Even more importantly, how do you ensure your progress is the right kind of progress that will allow you to be at your best on race day?

I am a firm believer that to accomplish any endurance goal you need:

  1. A clear understanding of where your fitness and skillset currently is.
  2. Where you want your fitness and skillset to be.
  3. A detailed plan of how to reach that fitness.
  4. A clear process to evaluate your progress (or lack thereof).

It’s important to know what your current characteristics are and how well they match the requirements of your chosen event. This will highlight areas that need to be addressed. With those areas in mind, you can then build a plan and implement a process to keep track of the adaptations and gains that are needed to succeed in your event.

It is my opinion that following a process such as this will maintain focus on what’s important for your success and prevent devoting precious training time developing adaptations that will not benefit you on race day.

Focus on what’s important.

We can all agree that improving your 100-meter sprint time will not correspond to the best marathon performance. Yet, I see many athletes focusing on specific training protocols and tests that have little to no correlation with what will be required on race day.

In doing so, they benchmark their performance and fitness gains in ways that will not benefit them in their race. That is where having a plan detailing the improvements you need to make will keep you on course to success.

Identifying what you want to achieve and planning to do so is great, but how do we go about making sure we are on track? What tools do we have available to quickly and easily track our improvement?

As it turns out, there are a lot of tools out there that can do just that. I use TrainingPeaks with my athletes and I find there are a few key metrics and charts that help me track their improvement.

Build and track your aerobic engine.

Triathlon is an aerobic sport. Long course triathlon, with its extreme distances, requires not only endurance but also efficiency to maximize performance per unit of effort. Increasing our aerobic engine is therefore paramount.

An easy way to identify progress in one’s aerobic engine is to look at the relationship between heart rate and power or pace. This is called Efficiency Factor (EF) in TrainingPeaks and is a summary statistic calculated for any workout that has heart rate and power/pace data.

As fitness is built, an athlete should expect to see improvement in the power or pace they can hold at any given heart rate. By plotting EF over time, an athlete can confirm that improvements are indeed being made and the athlete is getting fitter and can do more work for the same cardiac output.

Endurance is a clear necessity in long course triathlon, but the story doesn’t end there. At some point an athlete has enough endurance to complete the race. What they need to develop now is the ability to sustain the highest power or pace for the race duration—stamina.

Use the data.

In the TrainingPeaks Dashboard on the desktop platform, I often look at the Peak Power or Pace Chart to get a first glimpse of an athlete’s stamina, or ability to sustain power over long periods of time. The power version is most often used with cycling, but it is also available for running with the advent of the running power meter. For those who do not own a running power meter the Peak Pace Chart will be used for running. I recommend using this chart in several ways.

The shape of the right side of the curve, the longer durations, will give you an idea of an athlete’s stamina: the ability to sustain power over long periods. The shape of the left side gives an insight into the riding and running habits of the athlete by providing insight on the amount and type of speed work performed.

The chart can also be configured showing a comparison of different time periods. This is particularly helpful to highlight progress and confirm that the desired adaptations are being developed. It is also highly reassuring and motivating for an athlete who put in a lot of hard work to increase their ability to sustain power or pace to see that all the hard work has paid off with a tangible improvement.

Another great way to evaluate your progress is to chart your top 10 best power or pace performances over a given period; TrainingPeaks mobile allows up to the Top 20 Peak Performances to be displayed.

This will allow an athlete to see if peak performances are “clustering” at the appropriate time. For example, an IRONMAN athlete working to extend her stamina can confirm she is achieving her training goals by seeing that most of her top 10 best 60, 90 and 180-minute power or pace performances are concentrated at the end of the specifically targeted block.

Throughout the training cycle this chart can be used to confirm the athlete is adapting to the specific training focus. Blocks focusing on anaerobic capacity, VO2 max, Functional Threshold Power (FTP) and sub-maximal stamina should correlate with “peak clusters” for the corresponding time durations. Visual and tangible feedback confirming the training is working can be a powerful validation for an athlete.

Look out for common scenarios giving you inaccurate progress readings.

It is common to see a steep drop in power after 20 minutes or so. This is a result of the standard 20-minute FTP training and testing protocols. The are a few shortcomings, in my opinion, to these protocols.

Athletes will most likely estimate their FTP as 95 percent of their 20-minute power and consistently try to increase their power for that duration. This will do little to develop the stamina to hold sub-maximal power for the extended periods required for a 70.3 or IRONMAN bike leg.

IRONMAN 70.3 bike legs power averages for amateurs range in the 78 to 85 percent of FTP, while for a IRONMAN the range is 68 to 75 percent of FTP. Further, although this FTP estimate is relatively accurate for many athletes, it is not so for all. It tends to overestimate one’s true FTP due to every athlete’s unique physiology determining the anaerobic contribution to achieve power over that duration.

Another common occurrence is very high values on the right side of the chart (five minutes or shorter). This is a telltale sign of group/club rides that usually entail attacks and recoveries. A deeper dive will usually reveal that the athlete spends most of their time either at FTP and above or in recovery zones.

This may also deceivingly manifest as an apparently flat extended duration power curve since those attacks and recoveries will average out over the ride. I use the Variability Index, or VI, (Normalized Power/ Average Power) as a guide to determine how “steady” a ride is. A VI of 1.05 or lower is commonly considered to be steady and ideal for long course triathlon cycling.

If you ride with a group or club, or just tend to have some rides display a very high VI, I would recommend “tagging” those rides so they can be selectively excluded from your steady state training to ensure you are seeing a clear picture of your training and be able to chart real progress in stamina.

Consistently high values on the short end (left side) of the curve indicate training of the anaerobic energy systems that contribute to power production. Unfortunately, it is not possible to train ALL energy systems at once. Working on your short end power will tend to have a negative effect on your FTP and stamina and the reverse is also true.

Ideally, you would like to see a shift in the duration of the efforts toward longer, sub-maximal intensity more in line with race day requirements as the training progresses and race day nears. At the very least, you would like to see an improvement over the durations that most closely correlate with the race requirements.

Bring it all together.

A well-structured training program should progress the focus to maximize the accumulated effect of past training with the goal of achieving optimal performance on race day. Monitoring these metrics and charts (there are many more but not nearly enough time to go over them all!) will allow an athlete to confirm they are making the necessary gains in the performance metrics that will most benefit their race.

Long course racing is based on steady efforts and the ability to sustain sub-maximal power outputs for extended periods of time. Focusing the training on developing this ability and having confirmation that the ability has improved will certainly improve performance as well as provide the athlete with the confidence to tackle their race.

Having a clear plan of what you need to achieve, along with leveraging the available technology and tools to confirm you are on track to maximize your adaptations (and to course correct when necessary) will lead to optimal race day performance.

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How to Dial-in Your Race Specific Triathlon Training

You train hard. You put in the hours and the effort day after day. Effort is rarely the limiting factor to an endurance athlete’s performance. Efficient allocation of that effort, or training hours, can be.

Athletes’ regimens often consist of a combination of hard efforts (Functional Threshold Power (FTP), Threshold, VO2 and anaerobic work) and easy efforts (easy endurance mileage) arranged depending on schedule, available friends or group rides, time and how they feel.

They often repeat this schedule consistently throughout the year rather than periodizing their training to focus on specific physiological, physical and psychological adaptations required for success in their races. Furthermore, athletes are often not progressing their training toward the specific effort level required on race day.

While this approach can result in fitness gains, especially in less trained individuals, it will eventually lead to a plateau in performance and ultimately fail to optimally prepare an athlete for the specific demands of their race.

Specificity is arguably the most important aspect of training that is often overlooked or ignored. A well-structured training plan will progress through multiple phases, each designed to elicit specific physiological adaptations, becoming increasingly more specific to the upcoming race. The combination of these phases will result in the compounding of performance improvements that will ultimately lead to the athlete’s optimal performance on race day.

The human body is an incredible machine and is capable of immense adaptation. This adaptation is determined by the stresses and strains we place on it. If we teach our body to perform at a specific intensity for a specific duration, it will adapt and improve at that task.

What it will not do is improve at a task that we almost never introduce into our training. While it is necessary to train all the energy systems during training, it is the timing of specific training stimuli that will determine race performance.

A coach or athlete must start with a “needs analysis” of what is required on race day and assess the athlete’s current fitness, as well as their strengths and weaknesses. The result of this analysis will guide the design of a plan to maximize adaptations for success. This plan must evolve to become increasingly more specific to the race demands if one is to expect success.

An Example

In the case of long course triathlon racing, race intensities for age group athletes tend to be around 80 to 85 percent of FTP for IRONMAN 70.3 distances and 70 to 75 percent of FTP for IRONMAN distance bike legs.

It is all too common, however, for athletes to never experience these intensities for anything close to race-like durations during training. Most of the training will be focused at FTP and VO2 intensities (100 to 120 percent of FTP) or “easy pace” (55 to 65 percent of FTP).

Specifically, there will be interval sessions with low durations and high intensities and there will be endurance sessions with low intensities and high durations. What will be absent is race-like intensities for increasing durations. Why do we do that? What will the body adapt to?

It would be more logical to introduce race-like “stress” into training to allow the body to adapt and become better at handling it. We still want improvements in VO2 and FTP but, as we get closer to race day, we want our training to become progressively more specific.

That is why introducing race-specific sessions is such a powerful tool in an athlete’s or coach’s toolkit. These sessions can be based on Training Stress Score® (TSS) and evolve from low intensity and high duration to race-like intensity and race-like duration. Over time the body will adapt to the stress and become better at handling it.

Leverage Technology

Technology has made remarkable advancements in recent years and has provided us with an abundance of tools to accurately measure our efforts. Why not take advantage of these tools to ensure all our hard work pays off on the big day?

Power meters on the bike allow precise measurement of our effort, making specificity in training easier than it has ever been before. Heart rate monitors and GPS on the run have been a staple of training for years now and allow real-time feedback to guide training and racing.

Power for the run is a relatively new tool, but it promises to revolutionize the sport by making that feedback even more valuable, increasing the level of precision in training prescription and analysis as well as race pacing.

With all these tools at our disposal, it becomes a matter of understanding, planning and implementation to create tailored and race-specific workouts and training plans that will vastly increase the probability of success on race day.

Use the Data

We now have the capability to precisely measure the overall training stress placed on our bodies. With this knowledge we can forecast race demands with considerable accuracy and structure our training to prepare our bodies for them.

Moreover, we can create a long-range plan and monitor actual adaptations versus what we have forecast. This will provide insight on the specific individual characteristics of each athlete, making precise adjustments to their training to further fine tune their race preparation.

We can discover that the “plan” for race day is either too aggressive or conservative, depending on how an athlete responds and progresses through training. We can also track an athlete’s adaptation to the required race demands over time to reinforce their confidence that they are making progress toward their goal.

On the flip side, the data can also alert an athlete or their coach to the fact that the current training plan is not preparing the athlete for the demands of their race. The data won’t lie!

For example, an athlete who is preparing for an IRONMAN race but who likes to join his local cycling group one to two- hour road race style ride will see fitness gains on the bike, but will those gains be the ones that will be the most appropriate for their ultimate race goal?

I would argue that the answer is “no.” The data will bear proof to this by showing improvement in the ability to repeatedly produce power for a break—a useful trait in a cycling road race—but not in the metrics that matter for an IRONMAN, such as four to five hour smooth power production.

Fitness can be described and measured in countless different ways. It all depends what you are trying to achieve. A power lifter is fit, so is a track and field sprinter and so is an IRONMAN athlete.

However, most of us would agree that if you put any of those athletes in the others’ competition they would do rather poorly. Therein lies the concept of specificity. Your body will excel at what you train it to do. Your training should create the aerobic, anaerobic and muscular foundation to maximize your (or your athlete’s) physiological and physical potential and then fine tune it to specific race demands.

A well-designed training plan will create this framework in a logical and organized manner. This will guide an athlete through the multiple cycles, addressing all the energy systems, each timed specifically to build upon the previous one to maximize the overall performance gains.

As the race draws near, the training should transition to ever more specific race preparation to optimize the adaptation to the particular demands of the upcoming competition. Any athlete will gain confidence by seeing their performance improve. This confidence will be a powerful motivator to adhere to the training and ultimately result in their best performance on race day.

We are all familiar with and live by the saying “don’t try anything new on race day,” so why would we try a new intensity level? How will your body respond to a “new” stimulus on race day? The answer is “probably not that well.”

A well-constructed training plan will encompass all the primary energy systems but will become increasingly specific to race intensity as the race approaches. This will not only allow for specific adaptations that will benefit the athlete on race day but will also build confidence that the specific and planned for pace is known and sustainable for the duration of the race. The end result will be an athlete’s optimal performance on race day!

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How to Use TSS to Prepare for an Ironman

For many athletes, the very idea of racing an IRONMAN is daunting. The distances involved are so great that most athletes are overwhelmed and, as a result, tend to approach training with a very narrow focus (volume) while ignoring other important aspects of training.

Where to start? How rapidly should I progress? How much volume is enough? What intensities should I target? These are all questions that need to be addressed prior to creating an IRONMAN training plan, if one is to achieve success.

While focusing on being able to complete the distance may be appealing, it is only addressing one factor in the racing equation while ignoring perhaps the biggest contributor to IRONMAN racing success—intensity. If an athlete, or coach, truly wants to plan for a successful IRONMAN race, they will need to look beyond the volume approach.

Identify Your Sport-Specific TSS to Determine Your Goal CTL

This is where athletes can take their training to the next level by planning with Training Stress Score (TSS). TSS is calculated by combining the duration of a workout with its Intensity Factor® (IF), how hard the athlete worked compared to his/her functional threshold, or the maximum intensity that can be sustained for approximately one hour.

TSS allows an athlete or coach to compare the imparted training stress of workouts of different types, and even disciplines, on an “apples to apples” comparison. In this manner, overall training stress can be precisely controlled and allocated to areas that are most in need to elicit the biggest improvements in performance, without overreaching the athlete and risking illness or injury.

Because TSS is data driven, it is critically important to start off with complete and accurate data for Functional Threshold Power (FTP) or pace, as well as heart rate (HR) for each discipline (HR for swimming is not currently viable), and to test regularly to make sure your Training Stress Scores are accurate for the workouts throughout the training cycle.

Once you have reliable data to calculate TSS for your workouts you can start planning your training. The first step to successful planning of any kind is to identify both where you currently are and where you want to be at the conclusion.

I believe you should start your planning by having a target fitness level for race day. When using the Performance Management Chart (PMC), Chronic Training Load (CTL) is the measure of fitness you accumulated through your training—the six-week exponentially weighted average of your daily TSS.

You can look at past seasons and identify the CTL you achieved prior to a successful race to set a target, or, if this is your first IRONMAN race or you want to set a PR or take your racing to the next level, you can rely on general season targets that work for most, although not all, athletes (Figure 1).

These averages are sport-specific CTL targets, and are based on your cycling FTP for your bike CTL, and your running FTP (in kph) for your run CTL.

Swimming TSS is a more nebulous entity due to the variety introduced not only by technique, but also by the different conditions encountered in training – different pools, open water, temperature, drills, kicking etc., and should be determined in a more athlete-specific manner. Collecting and analyzing enough pace data from comparable pool training sets or open water swims will provide the best estimation of race day performance, CTL target and TSS for the swim.

Figure 1 Peak CTL guidelines for athletes depending on their goal (rFTPa in kph)

Athlete Bike CTL Run CTL (in kph)
Ironman Finisher/Midpacker 15-25% of bFTP (1.5-3) x rFTPa
Kona Age Group Qualifier 20-30% of bFTP (2-5) x rFTPa

Credit: Triathlon 2.0 by Jim Vance

Determine Your Goal Race-Day CTL to Plan Your Training

Once you have your race day CTL Target, subtract your current CTL from it to identify your required CTL gain, then divide that number by the number of weeks to race day to determine your weekly CTL gain.

You now have overall and sport-specific weekly TSS targets to structure your training. At this time, you will also get your first important feedback in the form of the answer to the question, “Is my goal reasonable given my current fitness and the amount of time I have available to prepare?”

If your weekly CTL increase (known as your ramp rate) is within the accepted norms (Figure 2), then it is fair to say you can expect to achieve your goal with minimal risk of illness or injury from overdoing it. If it is far above that, then you will have to re-evaluate your CTL goal.

Ramp rates are individualized and dependent on past training, athlete level and goals as well as injury proclivity, although I’ve found that rates of 5 to 8 per week work for most athletes. Below that and your training is probably lacking structure and focus. Much above that and you risk injury.

Figure 2 CTL Ramp Rate guidelines based on risk of injury.

Weekly CTL Ramp Rates
CTL <45 CTL >70
Low Risk 4 6
Moderate Risk 6 8
High Risk 8+ 10+

Credit: Triathlon 2.0 by Jim Vance

Using TSS/CTL Targets To Plan Specificity IRONMAN Training

Once you have calculated your CTL gain and weekly TSS targets, it’s time to start planning the specifics of your training. Depending on an athlete’s starting point, it may become apparent that one sport might need more focus than another, allowing for a very precise and efficient TSS allocation to achieve the required fitness gains without overloading the athlete and risking injury.

You should consider that 1 point of CTL is not equal among the three disciplines. Due to the weight bearing nature of running, running CTL is harder on the body than an equal amount of Cycling CTL, which is more impactful than a comparable Swim CTL. As a result, ramp rates may vary greatly among the three disciplines.

It is a good idea to incorporate race specific stress in training early on, provided the athlete has the fitness to handle the training load. TSS allows you to impart that specific stress rather than focusing on much less precise time or distance measures.

The bike leg is the longest segment by far and it will also greatly impact your ability to run well in the marathon. As a result, preparing your body to handle the rigors of the specific effort should be a priority.

An IRONMAN bike leg will usually record approx. 250 to 300 TSS (you can approximate yours by using your FTP, IF and estimated finish time), giving you a target for a specific training stimulus to plan for. Initially this can be a low intensity long duration ride, and evolve to more closely mimic race intensity and duration as the training progresses.

Swim race TSS values are much lower given the shorter duration of an IRONMAN swim leg and can therefore be more easily achieved in training, allowing you to develop the tolerance required on race day. I would not recommend reproducing race day run TSS in training, given the increased risk of injury.

IRONMAN run TSS projections can be made based on training metrics such as Intensity Factor, Functional Threshold Pace, and the Mean Maximal Pace Curve after a race TSS ride. On average an IRONMAN run will vary between 190 and 250 TSS, depending on the athlete, while IF ranges are between 0.7-0.85. With this information, you can determine the appropriate IF, and thus pace or power, you or your athlete can hold off the bike and train to achieve that goal.

Adjust Your Plan as Needed Along the Way

This approach will quickly provide answers to some important questions. Is your target run pace too aggressive for you to sustain off the bike? Can you tolerate your bike race TSS after a race equivalent swim TSS? Is your nutrition plan sufficient for the projected race day TSS? Can your body absorb the nutrition under the specific stress? You will then be able to adjust your plan, as needed, well in advance of race day giving you the confidence that you have a solid and executable race plan.

Training for an IRONMAN is daunting, but the planning does not need to be. Planning using TSS based on your individual data will eliminate guess work, simplify your training and greatly improve the probability of reaching the start line with the fitness and confidence to have your best performance.

 

This article was written for and published in the TrainingPeaks.com blog.

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Get Stronger and more Resilient in the Off Season!

The Off Season is the perfect time to introduce some focused Strength Training

By this time of the year a lot of triathletes in the northern hemisphere are nearing the end of their competitive season and are ready to transition into their off season. For many, this means no more structured training, a general loss of fitness and the need to build it all back up in the early spring. But what if you could give your body and mind the break they need while still laying the foundation for the upcoming season? For the past several months, training has meant long hours building the aerobic engine we value so much as endurance athletes. At a certain point the gains become smaller and smaller and harder to come by. The longer we stress our body in a singular manner, the less responsive it becomes to that stimulus. The off season is the perfect time to introduce some focused strength training – the different stimulus that will elicit several greatly beneficial adaptations for the upcoming season.

Correct Imbalances

Every athlete has muscular imbalances resulting from ingrained movement patterns. These imbalances are not only a prime cause of inefficiency in sport specific movement as well as loss of power generation, but can lead to injury that can sideline you for weeks or months. By taking the time to address these imbalances in the off season, an athlete can make the return to aerobic training more focused and productive by reducing the chances of an injury. After all, a stronger muscle is a more injury resistant muscle. Hamstring injuries, for example, are an all too common occurrence, often requiring a long recovery and rehabilitation period. However, it has been shown that eccentric strength exercises dramatically reduce the risk of acute hamstring injury (3,4). Who wouldn’t want to lower their risk of injury?

Improve Economy

As an endurance athlete you want to ensure you are expending the least amount of energy to cover a given distance at a specific speed. After all, we only have so much energy on race day, and how we expend it can mean the difference between a great race and a poor one. Running, being the last leg of a triathlon, is probably the most impacted by poor economy and the place where the biggest improvements (or losses) in performance can be gained. Even an efficient and economical runner can become inefficient when fatigued, and a weak runner will fatigue sooner than a strong one. In a Triathlon, especially a long course one, the fact is exacerbated by the bike leg preceding the run. It becomes doubly important to develop strength and power to allow your body to maintain form and efficiency throughout the entire race.

Strength training has been shown to improve running economy in runners by 3 % over a 12-week period when added to their regular training versus no improvement for runners who did not (6). I realize that doesn’t sound like much, but for a 3:30 Ironman marathoner that is a 6 minute and 20 second improvement. Now keep in mind that improvement came not through extra aerobic training, higher fitness or more work on race day –  that improvement came from being able to move your body forward at a faster pace using the same effort through making your muscles and movement pattern more efficient. Now imagine also being less likely to get injured, and being able to recover faster due to the improved ability of your body to tolerate your training. You can truly take your training to the next level and those time gains can increase significantly!

Increase Strength and Power

Strength training will also significantly affect your swim by increasing the power of your pull by strengthening specific musculature as well as creating a stronger kinetic chain to stabilize your whole body during your stroke. This will lead you to swim faster while using less of your total available energy and power, leaving you more rested as you exit the water.

On the bike increased strength is a huge asset. Power is defined as Torque x Circumferential Pedal Velocity (Cadence). Strength training increases neural drive and thus the ability of our muscles to contract with speed and coordination, leading to improved Cadence. Strength is defined as the ability to increase a muscles’ capacity to exert force, on the bike this translates to the ability to generate greater Torque. The net result of a well-designed and integrated strength training program for a cyclist or triathlete can be summarized as the ability to push the pedals harder while maintaining cadence – more Watts! Who doesn’t want that?

 

The Hormonal benefits of Strength Training

Perhaps even more important for Masters athletes are the hormonal adaptations that strength training elicits. We all know that as we age our bodies got through changes that are not optimal for performance. Muscle mass, strength and power all tend to decrease and our ability to recover from training is reduced as well. A lot of this decline is rooted in hormonal changes that happen as we age. Resistance training has been shown to stimulate the production of hormones that increase strength, resiliency and performance of our musculature (7). As a result, recovery will be enhanced alongside power and lean body mass. These will combine to maintain speed and performance for the athlete who, in the absence of resistance training, would have experienced a gradual but significant decrease over time. It’s like turning the clock back, or perhaps slowing it down a few notches!

What about bulking up too much?

There is a widespread belief that strength training is incongruous with endurance athletes. It is often thought that since increased muscle weight is a performance detractor it should be avoided by endurance athletes, who should therefore eschew strength training altogether. While it is true that gaining too much muscle weight would hinder performance, it is very unlikely that an endurance athlete would achieve such hypertrophy. First of all, a properly structured strength training program for an endurance athlete should not be solely focused on hypertrophy, it should be tailored to strength and power gains and periodized as a companion to regular endurance exercise. Secondly, there is an antagonistic relationship between aerobic/endurance and strength training that detracts from the growth of muscle fibers versus strength training alone (5). As far as the belief that strength training will decrease aerobic capacity, research indicates that heavy resistance training has very limited, if any, negative effects on aerobic power (1), and it can actually enhance performance in endurance sports (2).

 

By working on strength development, especially sport specific strength, you are upgrading the available horsepower of your engine. When you return to full endurance training, while maintaining some in season strength work, you will be able to significantly improve your performance come race day.

If you would like to learn more or have questions feel free reach out to me. I’m always happy to talk training!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

  1. Wilson, JR, Marin, PJ, Rhea, MR, Wilson, SM, Loenneke, JP and Anderson, JC. Concurrent Training: A meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res 26:2293-2307, 2012..
  2. Sedano, S, Marin, PJ, Cuadrado, G and Redondo, JC. Concurrent training in elite male runners: The influence of strength versus endurance training on performance outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 27:2433-2443, 2013
  3. Nichols, AW. Does eccentric training of hamstring muscle reduce acute injury in soccer? Clin J Sports Med 40:2256-2263, 2012.
  4. Petersen, J, Thorborg, K, Nielsen, MB, Budtz-Jorgensen, E, and Homlich,P. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men’s soccer: A Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 39:2296-2303, 2011.
  5. Kramer, WJ, Patton, J, Gordon, SE, Harman, EA, Deshenes, MR, Reynold, K, Newton, RU, Trilet, NT, and Dziados, JE. Compatibility of high intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. J Appl Physiol 78:976-989, 1995.
  6. Yamamoto, LM, Lopez, RM, Kalu, JF, Casa, DJ, Kraemer, WJ, and Maresh, CM. The effects of resistance training on endurance distance running performance among highly trained runners. A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 22:2036-2044, 2008
  7. Kraemer, WJ. Hormonal mechanisms related to the expression of strength and power. The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: Strength and Power in Sport. Komi, PV, ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 291-304, 1992.
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Meet the Coach

I am passionate about sports and physical activity. I grew up as a soccer player in Italy, playing for my hometown’s professional team. After moving to San Diego with my family I started training and competing in Multisport events and have completed numerous Triathlons, from Sprint to Ironman. I believe One on One coaching provides the best pathway to Optimal Performance on race day. Every athlete is different in their physiology, strengths, weaknesses and response to training. In my opinion, a tailored and personalized approach is the only way to achieve optimal results.

“What gets measured gets improved!”

My coaching and training approach is predicated on the belief that quantitatively driven training provides the most likely path to success. This process is based on creating an unbiased and objective assessment of an athlete, their strengths and weaknesses measured against goals and objectives. Only once this is done can a training plan truly be designed that will be both tailored to the athlete and focused on their goals.